How does centrifuge work to blood separate

Blood separation can be defined as the separation of whole blood into different components. Whole blood is usually separated for diagnostic and therapeutic reasons, as well as for research reasons. To achieve this, scientists may use several blood separation techniques. The most popular blood separation technology uses a high-speed rotating blood separator that applies centripetal force to separate the blood into its various components. These blood separators are often referred to as blood centrifuges. KETHINK’s KT-TXD3 blood centrifuge helps scientists achieve better clinical outcomes for patients. and provide reliable blood separation for their research.

When you provide whole blood, you are actually providing several life-saving components, including red blood cells, platelets, and plasma. After you donate your blood, your blood is sent to a laboratory. There it is centrifuged and divided into different parts. Each fraction, red blood cells, platelets and plasma, has unique medical uses, storage conditions and shelf life.

What are the components of blood plasma?

Blood cells are suspended in a yellowish substance called plasma. Plasma consists of water and several dissolved molecules. In conclusion, the components of plasma account for a large volume (±55%) of the blood. Some components of plasma include glucose, proteins, salts, clotting factors, hormones, immunoglobulins, and carbon dioxide from metabolic processes. Scientists can separate the components of plasma and use them to treat medical conditions, including injuries and illnesses. Because plasma is composed of many useful components, good apheresis techniques help clinicians treat patients more effectively.

Blood is mainly composed of a fluid called plasma and red blood cells that carry oxygen. An important measure of blood is the percentage of blood volume occupied by red blood cells (hematocrit). To determine this, the blood is spun in a tube in a centrifuge. Rotation mimics the effect of gravity, effectively increasing the value of G. After rotation, red blood cells, which are denser than plasma, accumulate at the bottom of the tube. To understand why blood needs to be centrifuged for separation, we need to analyze the force of red blood cells in plasma.

What is the composition of blood?

Whole blood is a tissue with a variety of cellular and acellular components. The main components of blood are cells, plasma, and platelets (fragments of cells involved in blood clotting). Blood is made up of two types of cells, red blood cells (red blood cells) and white blood cells (white blood cells). Red blood cells are blood cells that distribute oxygen from the lungs to various parts of the organism. As part of the immune system, white blood cells are responsible for attacking any infectious cells, thereby keeping the body healthy. White blood cells can also be divided into lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, and neutrophils (granulocytes). Components of whole blood can be separated using blood separation techniques such as centrifugation.

Separate blood into its components

Diagnostic laboratories often perform blood separation tests to detect the presence of disease markers or to prepare blood for transfusions. Each blood component has unique functions and separation from others may be necessary for accurate diagnosis or effective therapeutic application. Scientists often use the unique density of blood components to develop blood separation techniques. These blood separation techniques allow diagnostic laboratories to analyze each blood component with great accuracy. resulting in better outcomes for patients. Although separating blood into its components is not an end in itself. But it is a critical first step and the basis for many important diagnostic and research procedures.

Blood separation technology

Many blood separation techniques rely on centrifugation to achieve optimal separation of blood in collection tubes. The size of the collection tube should be appropriate for the apheresis centrifuge that will be used. At KETHINK, we manufacture centrifuges that are ideal for blood cell separation, plasma separation, and many other applications (PRP, PPP, stem cells, etc.). To handle these different applications, KETHINK has developed two types of blood separation centrifuges. These apheresis centrifuges use swinging rotors or fixed angle rotors. The rotors of the KETHNK Blood Separation Centrifuge can handle tubes of various volumes (ie 1.5mL, 2mL, 5mL, 7mL, 10mL or 15mL).

Blood Separation Using an Outer Swing Rotor

A blood separation centrifuge with a swinging rotor will allow the particles to settle evenly at the bottom of the tube. One advantage of using this blood separation method is the ease of separation of blood components after centrifugation. Another advantage of this blood separation technique is the use of less centrifugal force, which reduces energy consumption. Pendulum rotors are commonly used for blood separation in medical and research laboratories. KETHINK manufactures and supplies the advanced clinical centrifuge KT-DL7M with optional swinging rotor (6x10mL tubes) for blood separation. This premium blood separator delivers up to 8900 grams of centrifugal force at variable speeds up to 7,000 RPM.

Blood separation with fixed angle rotors

As an alternative to blood separators with swinging rotors, some blood separator centrifuges have fixed angle rotors. A fixed-angle rotor apheresis spins blood components to the other side of the tube, where they slide down to the bottom. This blood separation technology, combined with the higher centrifugal force of the fixed angle apheresis centrifuge, results in faster blood separation. The speed advantage of these apheresis machines is significant, and research laboratories prefer to use apheresis centrifuges with fixed angle rotors for their analysis. KETHINK (provides a blood separation centrifuge with fixed angle rotor, namely KT-TXD3

The KT-TXD3 clinical centrifuge can hold 8 tubes of different capacities, making it one of the most flexible blood separation centrifuges on the market. Rotors are designed to handle most common tube sizes and capacities include 1.5mL, 2mL, 5mL, 7mL, 10mL and 15mL. This blood separator spins blood samples at speeds up to 3,000 RPM, corresponding to a centrifugal force of 3,873 grams.

Recommended blood centrifugation speed

The recommended apheresis centrifuge speed depends on the application of the blood. For most diagnostic analyses and some research applications, a centrifuge speed of ±4,000 RPM is sufficient, while a centrifuge speed of ±6,500 RPM will be more suitable for most research applications. With a top speed of 4,000 RPM, we recommend the KT-DL7M Advanced Clinical Centrifuge with Swing Rotor as the best blood separation centrifuge for clinical applications. Our favorite apheresis centrifuge for research applications is the KT-TXD3 with a fixed angle rotor.

How long does it take to centrifuge blood?

Separation of blood by centrifugation is a quick process, usually completed within 15 minutes. Before starting apheresis, it is important to collect the blood sample in the correct tube for the apheresis job. When done, allow the sample to sit on the bench for 30 minutes to 1 hour to allow the blood to clot in the collection tube. For best results, it is not recommended to leave the collection tube unrefrigerated for more than an hour before centrifuging blood. For clinical applications, a blood separation centrifuge with lower centrifugal force, such as the KT-TXD3, is preferred. Research applications requiring fast turnaround can use the KT-DL7M Basic Clinical Centrifuge with higher centrifugal force to reduce blood separation time.

Why are white blood cells separated from red blood cells before analysis?

White blood cells are separated from red blood cells prior to analysis to make them easier for researchers and clinicians to analyze. There are far fewer white blood cells in whole blood compared to red blood cells. Therefore, without an initial blood separation step, scientists would have difficulty obtaining white blood cells for routine clinical analysis and research. The blood separation technique used often produces a unique layer of white blood cells that scientists can then remove for further analysis. When scientists use a blood separation centrifuge to separate white blood cells from red blood cells, the white blood cells are located in a layer called the buffy coat.

Centrifuged blood

The centrifuged blood has a multi-layered appearance with three horizontal stacks of different colors. The three color layers are easily distinguishable when you remove the specimen tube from the blood separation centrifuge. The straw-colored top layer is composed of plasma, the liquid portion of blood, which makes up 55% of the total blood volume. The layer below the plasma may have a white or gray color. White blood cells and platelets occupy this layer of centrifuged blood, known as the buffy coat. The bottom layer contains red blood cells, which make up 45% of the total blood volume. Depending on the oxygen content of the cells, the color of the lowest layer of centrifuged blood may be dark red or bright red.

How does a centrifuge separate blood?

Blood separation centrifuges work by spinning a blood sample (in a collection tube) at high speed. The high rotational speed exerts a rotational force called centrifugal force on the blood collection tube. As the blood collection tube is spun in the blood separation centrifuge, centrifugal force separates the various components of the blood as a function of their density and quantity in the sample. Therefore, simply running the blood sample in a high-quality blood separation centrifuge separates the various components of the blood into different layers for easy separation.

Which medical procedure involves the separation of plasma from blood cells in whole blood?

Plasmapheresis is a procedure used in clinical facilities to separate plasma (the liquid portion of whole blood) from blood cells. While most blood separation techniques, such as centrifugation, are performed in a laboratory setting, plasmapheresis can be performed in clinical facilities. Blood separation by plasmapheresis can be used to exchange unhealthy plasma in a patient for healthy plasma from a donor. The procedure of plasma exchange usually involves a two-way blood separation process. As the plasma leaves the body, individuals receive saline to protect them from dehydration.

Looking for a blood separation centrifuge?

If you are looking for an apheresis centrifuge with excellent value and dependable accuracy, KETHINK offers some of the best apheresis machines on the market. The KETHINK line of blood separation centrifuges includes fixed angle and swing rotor options. These include KT-DL7M and KT-TXD3. Both apheresis machines offer innovative features designed to help you get the most out of every apheresis.

Click here to test the Advanced Clinical Centrifuge CRC-416X for free worldwide. To try out the KETHINK Basic Clinical Centrifuge KT-DL7M, click here. The Blood Separation Centrifuge is your only “Really Accurate, Really Powerful” partner for your blood separation work!

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